Zulfikar Ali Bhutto

1.2 Zulfikar Ali Bhutto

  1. Operation Grandslam
  2. Tashkent Agreement onward
  3. Contentious Legacy of Bhutto
  4. Second Islamic Summit Conference

Notes and Principal Sources

 1.2 Zulfikar Ali Bhutto

The 9th Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1973 to 1977, Mr. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (1928–1979) was a Pakistani politician and a chrismatic, a exuberant and a great statesman. Just after Gen Yahya regime he remained 4th President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973. He is revered by his followers as Quaid-i-Awam (People’s Leader). Bhutto was the founder of the Pakistan People’s Party (PPP) and served as its chairman until his execution in 1979 during military rule of dictator Gen Zia ul Haq.

ZAB was educated at Berkeley and Oxford, trained as a barrister at Lincoln’s Inn. He entered politics as one of President Iskander Mirza’s cabinet members, before being assigned several ministries during President Ayub Khan’s military rule. In 1963 he was appointed foreign minister . He was a proponent of Operation Gibraltar in Indian-occupied Kashmir, leading to war with India in 1965. Maj Gen Akhtar Hussain Malik was GOC of that very division. Pakistan was so close to Akhnooor to have control of Indian held Kashmir but Ayub Khan ordered the change of Command of 12 Division.

  1. Operation Grandslam

Execution of the Operation: ” The Akhnoor sector was lightly defended by four Indian infantry battalions and a squadron of tanks. The infantry was stretched thin along the border and the AMX-13 tanks were no match for the Pakistani M47 Patton and M48 Patton tanks. Against a militarily stronger and larger Pakistani thrust, the Indian forces retreated from their defensive positions. According to Pakistani military historian Major (Retd.) A. H. Amin, the Pakistani forces in Operation Grandslam had a 6 to 1 advantage over Indian AMX-13 tanks, which were like ‘matchboxes’ in front of the Pakistani Pattons. In terms of artillery, Pakistan’s 8 inch guns were superior to anything that Indians had at that time and had an overall superiority of 6 to 1.

On the second day of the attack, the GOC of the 12th Infantry Division Major General Akhtar Hussain Malik, commanding the overall forces in the area, was replaced by Major General Yahya Khan, the GOC of the 7th Infantry Division, which delayed the attack by one day. Not only did this decision cause confusion among the Pakistani officer cadre, the delay also permitted the Indians to rush reinforcements to the sector. When the attack recommenced on 3 September, the Indian forces in the sector were sufficiently reinforced to hold out for a few more days, but they did not have the strength to launch a counterattack. As the attack carried on for two more days without any significant gains in territory, the Indian Army opened up a new front, on 6 September, across the sensitive state of Punjab in Pakistan. The advance of the Indian Army also threatened to cut across the right flank of the Pakistani attack. Realising the gravity of the threat, the Pakistani Army stopped its thrust into Kashmir and diverted forces to counter the Indian incursion.”


















About ayyubkulla

Ex Army Officer, NWFP UET'88, Civil Engineer, 3D Modelling, BIM and IFC from FHNW . Liberal religious views. All out to serve motherland.
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